openMSX
VLM5030.cc
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1 /*
2  vlm5030.c
3 
4  VLM5030 emulator
5 
6  Written by Tatsuyuki Satoh
7  Based on TMS5220 simulator (tms5220.c)
8 
9  note:
10  memory read cycle(==sampling rate) = 122.9u(440clock)
11  interpolator (LC8109 = 2.5ms) = 20 * samples(125us)
12  frame time (20ms) = 4 * interpolator
13  9bit DAC is composed of 5bit Physical and 3bitPWM.
14 
15  todo:
16  Noise Generator circuit without 'rand()' function.
17 
18 ----------- command format (Analytical result) ----------
19 
20 1)end of speech (8bit)
21 :00000011:
22 
23 2)silent some frame (8bit)
24 :????SS01:
25 
26 SS : number of silent frames
27  00 = 2 frame
28  01 = 4 frame
29  10 = 6 frame
30  11 = 8 frame
31 
32 3)-speech frame (48bit)
33 function: 6th : 5th : 4th : 3rd : 2nd : 1st :
34 end : --- : --- : --- : --- : --- :00000011:
35 silent : --- : --- : --- : --- : --- :0000SS01:
36 speech :11111122:22233334:44455566:67778889:99AAAEEE:EEPPPPP0:
37 
38 EEEEE : energy : volume 0=off,0x1f=max
39 PPPPP : pitch : 0=noise , 1=fast,0x1f=slow
40 111111 : K1 : 48=off
41 22222 : K2 : 0=off,1=+min,0x0f=+max,0x10=off,0x11=+max,0x1f=-min
42  : 16 == special function??
43 3333 : K3 : 0=off,1=+min,0x07=+max,0x08=-max,0x0f=-min
44 4444 : K4 :
45 555 : K5 : 0=off,1=+min,0x03=+max,0x04=-max,0x07=-min
46 666 : K6 :
47 777 : K7 :
48 888 : K8 :
49 999 : K9 :
50 AAA : K10 :
51 
52  ---------- chirp table information ----------
53 
54 DAC PWM cycle == 88system clock , (11clock x 8 pattern) = 40.6KHz
55 one chirp == 5 x PWM cycle == 440systemclock(8,136Hz)
56 
57 chirp 0 : volume 10- 8 : with filter
58 chirp 1 : volume 8- 6 : with filter
59 chirp 2 : volume 6- 4 : with filter
60 chirp 3 : volume 4 : no filter ??
61 chirp 4- 5: volume 4- 2 : with filter
62 chirp 6-11: volume 2- 0 : with filter
63 chirp 12-..: volume 0 : silent
64 
65  ---------- digital output information ----------
66  when ME pin = high , some status output to A0..15 pins
67 
68  A0..8 : DAC output value (abs)
69  A9 : DAC sign flag , L=minus,H=Plus
70  A10 : energy reload flag (pitch pulse)
71  A11..15 : unknown
72 
73  [DAC output value(signed 6bit)] = A9 ? A0..8 : -(A0..8)
74 
75 */
76 
77 #include "VLM5030.hh"
78 #include "DeviceConfig.hh"
79 #include "XMLElement.hh"
80 #include "FileOperations.hh"
81 #include "cstd.hh"
82 #include "one_of.hh"
83 #include "random.hh"
84 #include "ranges.hh"
85 #include "serialize.hh"
86 #include "xrange.hh"
87 #include <algorithm>
88 #include <cmath>
89 #include <cstring>
90 
91 namespace openmsx {
92 
93 
94 // interpolator per frame
95 constexpr int FR_SIZE = 4;
96 // samples per interpolator
97 constexpr int IP_SIZE_SLOWER = 240 / FR_SIZE;
98 constexpr int IP_SIZE_SLOW = 200 / FR_SIZE;
99 constexpr int IP_SIZE_NORMAL = 160 / FR_SIZE;
100 constexpr int IP_SIZE_FAST = 120 / FR_SIZE;
101 constexpr int IP_SIZE_FASTER = 80 / FR_SIZE;
102 
103 // phase value
104 enum {
111  PH_END
112 };
113 
114 // speed parameter
115 // SPC SPB SPA
116 // 1 0 1 more slow (05h) : 42ms (150%) : 60sample
117 // 1 1 x slow (06h,07h) : 34ms (125%) : 50sample
118 // x 0 0 normal (00h,04h) : 25.6ms (100%) : 40sample
119 // 0 0 1 fast (01h) : 20.2ms (75%) : 30sample
120 // 0 1 x more fast (02h,03h) : 12.2ms (50%) : 20sample
121 constexpr int VLM5030_speed_table[8] =
122 {
124  IP_SIZE_FAST,
129  IP_SIZE_SLOW,
131 };
132 
133 // ROM Tables
134 
135 // This is the energy lookup table
136 
137 // sampled from real chip
138 static constexpr word energytable[0x20] =
139 {
140  0, 2, 4, 6, 10, 12, 14, 18, // 0-7
141  22, 26, 30, 34, 38, 44, 48, 54, // 8-15
142  62, 68, 76, 84, 94,102,114,124, // 16-23
143  136,150,164,178,196,214,232,254 // 24-31
144 };
145 
146 // This is the pitch lookup table
147 constexpr byte pitchtable [0x20] =
148 {
149  1, // 0 : random mode
150  22, // 1 : start=22
151  23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, // 2- 9 : 1step
152  32, 34, 36, 38, 40, 42, 44, 46, // 10-17 : 2step
153  50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 70, 74, 78, // 18-25 : 4step
154  86, 94, 102,110,118,126 // 26-31 : 8step
155 };
156 
157 constexpr int16_t K1_table[] = {
158  -24898, -25672, -26446, -27091, -27736, -28252, -28768, -29155,
159  -29542, -29929, -30316, -30574, -30832, -30961, -31219, -31348,
160  -31606, -31735, -31864, -31864, -31993, -32122, -32122, -32251,
161  -32251, -32380, -32380, -32380, -32509, -32509, -32509, -32509,
162  24898, 23995, 22963, 21931, 20770, 19480, 18061, 16642,
163  15093, 13416, 11610, 9804, 7998, 6063, 3999, 1935,
164  0, -1935, -3999, -6063, -7998, -9804, -11610, -13416,
165  -15093, -16642, -18061, -19480, -20770, -21931, -22963, -23995
166 };
167 constexpr int16_t K2_table[] = {
168  0, -3096, -6321, -9417, -12513, -15351, -18061, -20770,
169  -23092, -25285, -27220, -28897, -30187, -31348, -32122, -32638,
170  0, 32638, 32122, 31348, 30187, 28897, 27220, 25285,
171  23092, 20770, 18061, 15351, 12513, 9417, 6321, 3096
172 };
173 constexpr int16_t K3_table[] = {
174  0, -3999, -8127, -12255, -16384, -20383, -24511, -28639,
175  32638, 28639, 24511, 20383, 16254, 12255, 8127, 3999
176 };
177 constexpr int16_t K5_table[] = {
178  0, -8127, -16384, -24511, 32638, 24511, 16254, 8127
179 };
180 
181 int VLM5030::getBits(unsigned sBit, unsigned bits)
182 {
183  unsigned offset = address + (sBit / 8);
184  unsigned data = rom[(offset + 0) & address_mask] +
185  rom[(offset + 1) & address_mask] * 256;
186  data >>= (sBit & 7);
187  data &= (0xFF >> (8 - bits));
188  return data;
189 }
190 
191 // get next frame
192 int VLM5030::parseFrame()
193 {
194  // remember previous frame
195  old_energy = new_energy;
196  old_pitch = new_pitch;
197  ranges::copy(new_k, old_k);
198  // command byte check
199  byte cmd = rom[address & address_mask];
200  if (cmd & 0x01) {
201  // extend frame
202  new_energy = new_pitch = 0;
203  ranges::fill(new_k, 0);
204  ++address;
205  if (cmd & 0x02) {
206  // end of speech
207  return 0;
208  } else {
209  // silent frame
210  int nums = ((cmd >> 2) + 1) * 2;
211  return nums * FR_SIZE;
212  }
213  }
214  // pitch
215  new_pitch = (pitchtable[getBits(1, 5)] + pitch_offset) & 0xff;
216  // energy
217  new_energy = energytable[getBits(6, 5)];
218 
219  // 10 K's
220  new_k[9] = K5_table[getBits(11, 3)];
221  new_k[8] = K5_table[getBits(14, 3)];
222  new_k[7] = K5_table[getBits(17, 3)];
223  new_k[6] = K5_table[getBits(20, 3)];
224  new_k[5] = K5_table[getBits(23, 3)];
225  new_k[4] = K5_table[getBits(26, 3)];
226  new_k[3] = K3_table[getBits(29, 4)];
227  new_k[2] = K3_table[getBits(33, 4)];
228  new_k[1] = K2_table[getBits(37, 5)];
229  new_k[0] = K1_table[getBits(42, 6)];
230 
231  address += 6;
232  return FR_SIZE;
233 }
234 
235 // decode and buffering data
236 void VLM5030::generateChannels(float** bufs, unsigned num)
237 {
238  // Single channel device: replace content of bufs[0] (not add to it).
239  if (phase == PH_IDLE) {
240  bufs[0] = nullptr;
241  return;
242  }
243 
244  int buf_count = 0;
245 
246  // running
247  if (phase == one_of(PH_RUN, PH_STOP)) {
248  // playing speech
249  while (num > 0) {
250  int current_val;
251  // check new interpolator or new frame
252  if (sample_count == 0) {
253  if (phase == PH_STOP) {
254  phase = PH_END;
255  sample_count = 1;
256  goto phase_stop; // continue to end phase
257  }
258  sample_count = frame_size;
259  // interpolator changes
260  if (interp_count == 0) {
261  // change to new frame
262  interp_count = parseFrame(); // with change phase
263  if (interp_count == 0) {
264  // end mark found
265  interp_count = FR_SIZE;
266  sample_count = frame_size; // end -> stop time
267  phase = PH_STOP;
268  }
269  // Set old target as new start of frame
270  current_energy = old_energy;
271  current_pitch = old_pitch;
272  ranges::copy(old_k, current_k);
273  // is this a zero energy frame?
274  if (current_energy == 0) {
275  target_energy = 0;
276  target_pitch = current_pitch;
277  ranges::copy(current_k, target_k);
278  } else {
279  // normal frame
280  target_energy = new_energy;
281  target_pitch = new_pitch;
282  ranges::copy(new_k, target_k);
283  }
284  }
285  // next interpolator
286  // Update values based on step values 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%
287  interp_count -= interp_step;
288  // 3,2,1,0 -> 1,2,3,4
289  int interp_effect = FR_SIZE - (interp_count % FR_SIZE);
290  current_energy = old_energy + (target_energy - old_energy) * interp_effect / FR_SIZE;
291  if (old_pitch > 1) {
292  current_pitch = old_pitch + (target_pitch - old_pitch) * interp_effect / FR_SIZE;
293  }
294  for (auto i : xrange(10))
295  current_k[i] = old_k[i] + (target_k[i] - old_k[i]) * interp_effect / FR_SIZE;
296  }
297  // calcrate digital filter
298  if (old_energy == 0) {
299  // generate silent samples here
300  current_val = 0x00;
301  } else if (old_pitch <= 1) {
302  // generate unvoiced samples here
303  current_val = random_bool() ? int(current_energy)
304  : -int(current_energy);
305  } else {
306  // generate voiced samples here
307  current_val = (pitch_count == 0) ? current_energy : 0;
308  }
309 
310  // Lattice filter here
311  int u[11];
312  u[10] = current_val;
313  for (int i = 9; i >= 0; --i) {
314  u[i] = u[i + 1] - ((current_k[i] * x[i]) / 32768);
315  }
316  for (int i = 9; i >= 1; --i) {
317  x[i] = x[i - 1] + ((current_k[i - 1] * u[i - 1]) / 32768);
318  }
319  x[0] = u[0];
320 
321  // clipping, buffering
322  bufs[0][buf_count] = std::clamp(u[0], -511, 511);
323  ++buf_count;
324  --sample_count;
325  ++pitch_count;
326  if (pitch_count >= current_pitch) {
327  pitch_count = 0;
328  }
329  --num;
330  }
331  // return;
332  }
333 phase_stop:
334  switch (phase) {
335  case PH_SETUP:
336  if (sample_count <= num) {
337  sample_count = 0;
338  // pin_BSY = true;
339  phase = PH_WAIT;
340  } else {
341  sample_count -= num;
342  }
343  break;
344  case PH_END:
345  if (sample_count <= num) {
346  sample_count = 0;
347  pin_BSY = false;
348  phase = PH_IDLE;
349  } else {
350  sample_count -= num;
351  }
352  }
353  // silent buffering
354  while (num > 0) {
355  bufs[0][buf_count++] = 0;
356  --num;
357  }
358 }
359 
360 float VLM5030::getAmplificationFactorImpl() const
361 {
362  return 1.0f / (1 << 9);
363 }
364 
365 // setup parameteroption when RST=H
366 void VLM5030::setupParameter(byte param)
367 {
368  // latch parameter value
369  parameter = param;
370 
371  // bit 0,1 : 4800bps / 9600bps , interpolator step
372  if (param & 2) { // bit 1 = 1 , 9600bps
373  interp_step = 4; // 9600bps : no interpolator
374  } else if (param & 1) { // bit1 = 0 & bit0 = 1 , 4800bps
375  interp_step = 2; // 4800bps : 2 interpolator
376  } else { // bit1 = bit0 = 0 : 2400bps
377  interp_step = 1; // 2400bps : 4 interpolator
378  }
379 
380  // bit 3,4,5 : speed (frame size)
381  frame_size = VLM5030_speed_table[(param >> 3) & 7];
382 
383  // bit 6,7 : low / high pitch
384  if (param & 0x80) { // bit7=1 , high pitch
385  pitch_offset = -8;
386  } else if (param & 0x40) { // bit6=1 , low pitch
387  pitch_offset = 8;
388  } else {
389  pitch_offset = 0;
390  }
391 }
392 
394 {
395  phase = PH_RESET;
396  address = 0;
397  vcu_addr_h = 0;
398  pin_BSY = false;
399 
400  old_energy = old_pitch = 0;
401  new_energy = new_pitch = 0;
402  current_energy = current_pitch = 0;
403  target_energy = target_pitch = 0;
404  memset(old_k, 0, sizeof(old_k));
405  memset(new_k, 0, sizeof(new_k));
406  memset(current_k, 0, sizeof(current_k));
407  memset(target_k, 0, sizeof(target_k));
408  interp_count = sample_count = pitch_count = 0;
409  memset(x, 0, sizeof(x));
410  // reset parameters
411  setupParameter(0x00);
412 }
413 
414 // get BSY pin level
415 bool VLM5030::getBSY(EmuTime::param time) const
416 {
417  const_cast<VLM5030*>(this)->updateStream(time);
418  return pin_BSY;
419 }
420 
421 // latch control data
422 void VLM5030::writeData(byte data)
423 {
424  latch_data = data;
425 }
426 
427 void VLM5030::writeControl(byte data, EmuTime::param time)
428 {
429  updateStream(time);
430  setRST((data & 0x01) != 0);
431  setVCU((data & 0x04) != 0);
432  setST ((data & 0x02) != 0);
433 }
434 
435 // set RST pin level : reset / set table address A8-A15
436 void VLM5030::setRST(bool pin)
437 {
438  if (pin_RST) {
439  if (!pin) { // H -> L : latch parameters
440  pin_RST = false;
441  setupParameter(latch_data);
442  }
443  } else {
444  if (pin) { // L -> H : reset chip
445  pin_RST = true;
446  if (pin_BSY) {
447  reset();
448  }
449  }
450  }
451 }
452 
453 // set VCU pin level : ?? unknown
454 void VLM5030::setVCU(bool pin)
455 {
456  // direct mode / indirect mode
457  pin_VCU = pin;
458 }
459 
460 // set ST pin level : set table address A0-A7 / start speech
461 void VLM5030::setST(bool pin)
462 {
463  if (pin_ST == pin) {
464  // pin level unchanged
465  return;
466  }
467  if (!pin) {
468  // H -> L
469  pin_ST = false;
470  if (pin_VCU) {
471  // direct access mode & address High
472  vcu_addr_h = (int(latch_data) << 8) + 0x01;
473  } else {
474  // check access mode
475  if (vcu_addr_h) {
476  // direct access mode
477  address = (vcu_addr_h & 0xff00) + latch_data;
478  vcu_addr_h = 0;
479  } else {
480  // indirect access mode
481  int table = (latch_data & 0xfe) + ((int(latch_data) & 1) << 8);
482  address = ((rom[(table + 0) & address_mask]) << 8) |
483  rom[(table + 1) & address_mask];
484  }
485  // reset process status
486  sample_count = frame_size;
487  interp_count = FR_SIZE;
488  // clear filter
489  // start after 3 sampling cycle
490  phase = PH_RUN;
491  }
492  } else {
493  // L -> H
494  pin_ST = true;
495  // setup speech, BSY on after 30ms?
496  phase = PH_SETUP;
497  sample_count = 1; // wait time for busy on
498  pin_BSY = true;
499  }
500 }
501 
502 
503 static XMLElement* getRomConfig(
504  DeviceConfig& config, const std::string& name, std::string_view romFilename)
505 {
506  auto& doc = config.getXMLDocument();
507  auto* voiceROMconfig = doc.allocateElement(doc.allocateString(name));
508  voiceROMconfig->setFirstAttribute(doc.allocateAttribute("id", "name"));
509  auto* romElement = voiceROMconfig->setFirstChild(doc.allocateElement("rom"));
510  romElement->setFirstChild(doc.allocateElement( // load by sha1sum
511  "sha1", "4f36d139ee4baa7d5980f765de9895570ee05f40"))
512  ->setNextSibling(doc.allocateElement( // load by predefined filename in software rom's dir
513  "filename",
514  doc.allocateString(tmpStrCat(FileOperations::stripExtension(romFilename), "_voice.rom"))))
515  ->setNextSibling(doc.allocateElement( // or hardcoded filename in ditto dir
516  "filename", "keyboardmaster/voice.rom"));
517  return voiceROMconfig;
518 }
519 
520 constexpr auto INPUT_RATE = unsigned(cstd::round(3579545 / 440.0));
521 
522 VLM5030::VLM5030(const std::string& name_, static_string_view desc,
523  std::string_view romFilename, const DeviceConfig& config)
524  : ResampledSoundDevice(config.getMotherBoard(), name_, desc, 1, INPUT_RATE, false)
525  , rom(name_ + " ROM", "rom", DeviceConfig(config, *getRomConfig(const_cast<DeviceConfig&>(config), name_, romFilename)))
526 {
527  // reset input pins
528  pin_RST = pin_ST = pin_VCU = false;
529  latch_data = 0;
530 
531  reset();
532  phase = PH_IDLE;
533 
534  address_mask = rom.getSize() - 1;
535 
536  registerSound(config);
537 }
538 
540 {
541  unregisterSound();
542 }
543 
544 template<typename Archive>
545 void VLM5030::serialize(Archive& ar, unsigned /*version*/)
546 {
547  ar.serialize("address_mask", address_mask,
548  "frame_size", frame_size,
549  "pitch_offset", pitch_offset,
550  "current_energy", current_energy,
551  "current_pitch", current_pitch,
552  "current_k", current_k,
553  "x", x,
554  "address", address,
555  "vcu_addr_h", vcu_addr_h,
556  "old_k", old_k,
557  "new_k", new_k,
558  "target_k", target_k,
559  "old_energy", old_energy,
560  "new_energy", new_energy,
561  "target_energy", target_energy,
562  "old_pitch", old_pitch,
563  "new_pitch", new_pitch,
564  "target_pitch", target_pitch,
565  "interp_step", interp_step,
566  "interp_count", interp_count,
567  "sample_count", sample_count,
568  "pitch_count", pitch_count,
569  "latch_data", latch_data,
570  "parameter", parameter,
571  "phase", phase,
572  "pin_BSY", pin_BSY,
573  "pin_ST", pin_ST,
574  "pin_VCU", pin_VCU,
575  "pin_RST", pin_RST);
576 }
577 
579 
580 } // namespace openmsx
Definition: one_of.hh:7
unsigned getSize() const
Definition: Rom.hh:34
void updateStream(EmuTime::param time)
Definition: SoundDevice.cc:139
void unregisterSound()
Unregisters this sound device with the Mixer.
Definition: SoundDevice.cc:134
void registerSound(const DeviceConfig &config)
Registers this sound device with the Mixer.
Definition: SoundDevice.cc:89
void writeControl(byte data, EmuTime::param time)
set RST / VCU / ST pins
Definition: VLM5030.cc:427
void writeData(byte data)
latch control data
Definition: VLM5030.cc:422
bool getBSY(EmuTime::param time) const
get BSY pin level
Definition: VLM5030.cc:415
VLM5030(const std::string &name, static_string_view desc, std::string_view romFilename, const DeviceConfig &config)
Definition: VLM5030.cc:522
void serialize(Archive &ar, unsigned version)
Definition: VLM5030.cc:545
XMLAttribute * setFirstAttribute(XMLAttribute *attribute)
Definition: XMLElement.hh:224
static_string_view
constexpr double round(double x)
Definition: cstd.hh:355
constexpr vecN< N, T > clamp(const vecN< N, T > &x, const vecN< N, T > &minVal, const vecN< N, T > &maxVal)
Definition: gl_vec.hh:296
string_view stripExtension(string_view path)
Returns the path without extension.
This file implemented 3 utility functions:
Definition: Autofire.cc:9
constexpr int IP_SIZE_NORMAL
Definition: VLM5030.cc:99
constexpr int16_t K3_table[]
Definition: VLM5030.cc:173
constexpr Table table
Definition: CPUCore.cc:260
constexpr int16_t K2_table[]
Definition: VLM5030.cc:167
constexpr int IP_SIZE_FAST
Definition: VLM5030.cc:100
constexpr int VLM5030_speed_table[8]
Definition: VLM5030.cc:121
constexpr int IP_SIZE_SLOW
Definition: VLM5030.cc:98
constexpr byte pitchtable[0x20]
Definition: VLM5030.cc:147
@ PH_RUN
Definition: VLM5030.cc:109
@ PH_END
Definition: VLM5030.cc:111
@ PH_RESET
Definition: VLM5030.cc:105
@ PH_IDLE
Definition: VLM5030.cc:106
@ PH_SETUP
Definition: VLM5030.cc:107
@ PH_STOP
Definition: VLM5030.cc:110
@ PH_WAIT
Definition: VLM5030.cc:108
uint16_t word
16 bit unsigned integer
Definition: openmsx.hh:29
constexpr int IP_SIZE_SLOWER
Definition: VLM5030.cc:97
constexpr int FR_SIZE
Definition: VLM5030.cc:95
constexpr int16_t K5_table[]
Definition: VLM5030.cc:177
constexpr int IP_SIZE_FASTER
Definition: VLM5030.cc:101
constexpr int16_t K1_table[]
Definition: VLM5030.cc:157
void fill(ForwardRange &&range, const T &value)
Definition: ranges.hh:226
auto copy(InputRange &&range, OutputIter out)
Definition: ranges.hh:178
bool random_bool()
Return a random boolean value.
Definition: random.hh:24
#define INSTANTIATE_SERIALIZE_METHODS(CLASS)
Definition: serialize.hh:998
TemporaryString tmpStrCat(Ts &&... ts)
Definition: strCat.hh:659
constexpr auto xrange(T e)
Definition: xrange.hh:155